Koval"chuk, L.V., Khoreva, M.V., Nikonova, A.S.

Recognition receptors of innate immunity (NLR, RLR, and CLR)

Pirogov Russian State Medical University, Moscow, Russia

Current concepts of recognition receptors of innate immunity (pattern-recognition receptors, PRR) are discussed in the review. Structural and functional features of receptors from the families NOD-like receptors (NLRs), RIG-like receptors (RLRs), and C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs) are described. These receptors are found on cell surface or in cytoplasm, and also could be presented in organism in secretory form. Data on exogenous and endogenous ligands, signal transduction mechanisms that induce production of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial petides are summarized in the review. Special attention is paid to family of NLR receptors, which are involved in generation and activation of multimeric protein complex called an inflammasome. Activation of inflammasome leads to generation of active forms of proinflammatory cytokines belonging to IL-1 family (IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33) from their precursor peptides due to effect of caspase-1. Data regarding involvement of innate immunity receptors in development and pathogenesis of various diseases are presented.
Zh. Mikrobiol. (Moscow), 2011, No. 1, P. 93100